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GB/T 10322.1-2023 PDF in English

GB/T 10322.1-2023 (GB/T10322.1-2023, GBT 10322.1-2023, GBT10322.1-2023)
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GB/T 10322.1-2023: PDF in English (GBT 10322.1-2023)

GB/T 10322.1-2023
ICS 73.060.10
CCS D 31
GB/T 10322.1-2023 / ISO 3082:2017
Replacing GB/T 10322.1-2014
Iron Ores – Sampling and Sample Preparation Procedures
(ISO 3082:2017, IDT)
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 5
Introduction ... 7
1 Scope ... 8
2 Normative References ... 8
3 Terms and Definitions ... 11
4 General Considerations for Sampling and Sample Preparation ... 13
4.1 Basic requirements ... 13
4.2 Establishing a sampling scheme ... 14
4.3 System verification ... 15
5 Fundamentals of Sampling and Sample Preparation ... 16
5.1 Minimization of bias ... 16
5.1.1 General ... 16
5.1.2 Minimization of particle size degradation ... 16
5.1.3 Extraction of increments ... 16
5.1.4 Increment mass ... 17
5.2 Overall precision ... 18
5.3 Quality variation ... 21
5.4 Sampling precision and number of primary increments ... 22
5.4.1 Mass-basis sampling ... 22
5.4.2 Time-basis sampling ... 23
5.5 Precision of sample preparation and overall precision ... 23
5.5.1 General ... 23
5.5.2 Preparation and measurement of gross sample ... 24
5.5.3 Preparation and measurement of partial samples ... 24
5.5.4 Preparation and measurement of each increment ... 25
6 Methods of Sampling ... 25
6.1 Mass-basis sampling ... 25
6.1.1 Mass of increment ... 25
6.1.2 Quality variation... 26
6.1.3 Number of primary increments ... 26
6.1.4 Sampling interval ... 27
6.1.5 Methods of taking increments ... 27
6.2 Time-basis sampling ... 28
6.2.1 Mass of increment ... 28
6.2.2 Quality variation... 28
6.2.3 Number of increments ... 28
6.2.4 Sampling interval ... 28
6.2.5 Methods of taking increments ... 28
6.3 Stratified random sampling within fixed mass or time intervals ... 29
6.3.1 General ... 29
6.3.2 Fixed mass intervals ... 29
6.3.3 Fixed time intervals ... 29
7 Sampling from Moving Streams ... 30
7.1 General ... 30
7.2 Safety of operations ... 30
7.3 Robustness of sampling installation... 30
7.4 Versatility of sampling system ... 31
7.5 Primary samplers ... 31
7.5.1 Location ... 31
7.5.2 Types of primary sampler ... 31
7.5.3 General design criteria for primary cutters ... 35
7.5.4 Cutter aperture of primary sampler ... 36
7.5.5 Cutter speed of primary sampler ... 36
7.6 Secondary and subsequent samplers ... 37
7.7 Online sample preparation ... 37
7.7.1 Arrangement for sample preparation ... 37
7.7.2 Crushers ... 38
7.7.3 Dividers ... 38
7.7.4 Dryers ... 38
7.8 Checking precision and bias ... 39
7.9 Cleaning and maintenance ... 39
7.10 Example of a flowsheet ... 41
8 Sampling from Stationary Situations ... 43
8.1 General ... 43
8.2 Sampling from trucks and wagons ... 43
8.2.1 General ... 43
8.2.2 Sampling devices ... 43
8.2.3 Number of primary increments ... 44
8.2.4 Method of sampling ... 44
8.3 Sampling from ships, stockpiles and bunkers ... 45
9 Stopped-Belt Reference Sampling ... 45
10 Sample Preparation ... 46
10.1 Fundamentals ... 46
10.1.1 General ... 46
10.1.2 Drying ... 47
10.1.3 Crushing and grinding ... 47
10.1.4 Mixing ... 48
10.1.5 Division ... 48
10.1.6 Mass of divided sample ... 49
10.1.7 Split use and multiple use of sample ... 53
10.2 Method of constituting partial samples or a gross sample ... 53
10.2.1 General ... 53
10.2.2 Method of constitution for mass-basis sampling ... 54
10.2.3 Method of constitution for time-basis sampling ... 54
10.2.4 Special procedure for moisture content ... 55
10.3 Mechanical methods of division ... 55
10.3.1 Mechanical increment division ... 55
10.3.2 Other mechanical division methods ... 57
10.4 Manual methods of division... 57
10.4.1 General ... 57
10.4.2 Manual increment-division method ... 57
10.4.3 Manual strip-division method ... 60
10.4.4 Manual riffle-division method ... 62
10.5 Preparation of test samples for chemical analysis ... 63
10.5.1 Mass and particle size ... 63
10.5.2 Preparation to 250μm nominal top size ... 66
10.5.3 Final preparation ... 66
10.5.4 Grinding to 100μm or 160μm nominal top size ... 66
10.5.5 Distribution of samples for chemical analysis ... 67
10.6 Preparation of test samples for moisture determination ... 67
10.7 Preparation of test samples for size determination ... 69
10.8 Preparation of test samples for physical testing ... 69
10.8.1 Selection of sample preparation procedure ... 69
10.8.2 Extraction of test samples ... 71
10.8.3 Reserve samples ... 78
11 Packing and Marking of Samples ... 78
Annex A (Informative) Inspection of Mechanical Sampling Systems ... 80
Annex B (Normative) Formulae for Number of Increments ... 88
Annex C (Informative) Alternative Methods of Taking the Reference Sample ... 91
Annex D (Normative) Procedure for Determining the Minimum Mass of Divided
Gross Sample for Size Determination Using Other Mechanical Division Methods... 96
Annex E (Normative) Riffle Dividers ... 99
Bibliography ... 101
This Document was drafted as per the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2020 Directives for
Standardization – Part 1: Rules for the Structure and Drafting of Standardizing Documents.
This Document is Part 1 of GB/T 10322; GB/T 10322 has published the following parts:
--- Iron Ores – Sampling and Sample Preparation Procedures;
--- Iron Ores – Experimental Methods for Evaluation of Quality Variation;
--- Iron Ores – Experimental Methods for Checking the Precision of Sampling;
--- Iron Ores – Experimental Methods for Checking the Bias of Sampling;
--- Iron Ores – Determination of Moisture Content of a Consignment;
--- Iron Ores for Blast Furnace Feedstocks – Determination of the Decrepitation Index;
--- Iron Ores and Direct Reduced Iron – Determination of Size Distribution by Sieving;
--- Iron Ores – Single-Point Determination of Specific Surface Area – Nitrogen Adsorption
This Document replaced GB/T 10322.1-2014 Iron Ores – Sampling and Sample Preparation
Procedures. Compared with GB/T 10322.1-2014, this Document has the major technical
changes besides the structural adjustments and editorial modifications:
a) Change the definition of “specimen” (see 3.6 of this Edition; 3.6 of 2014 Edition);
b) Change the “Basic requirements” in “General conditions for sampling and sample
preparation” (see 4.1 of this Edition; 4.1 of 2014 Edition);
c) Change the suspended section in the original 5.1.4 to a new added article " General
d) Change the technical requirements in "Quality of increments for sampling of falling ore
flow" (see of this Edition; of 2014 Edition);
e) Change the volume density unit from "t/m3" to "kg/m3" (see of this Edition;
of 2014 Edition);
f) Change the relevant data in Tables 1, 3 and 5 (see 5.2, 5.4 and of this Edition);
g) Change the technical requirements for crushers (see 7.7.2 of this Edition; 7.7.2 of this
h) Change the requirements for dividing of gross samples and division of individual
increments or partial samples (see, of this Edition;, of 2014 Edition);
i) Change the quality requirements for physical test samples (see of this Edition; of 2014 Edition);
j) Change the special provisions on moisture content and update the data in Table 7 (see
10.2.4 of this Edition; 10.2.4 of 2014 Edition);
k) Add manual strip division method (see 10.4.3 of this Edition);
l) Change sample preparation for moisture determination (see 10.6 of this Edition; 10.6 of
2014 Edition).
This Document equivalently adopted ISO 3082:2017 Iron Ores – Sampling and Sample
Preparation Procedures.
Please note some contents of this Document may involve patents. The issuing agency of this
Document shall not assume the responsibility to identify these patents.
This Document was proposed by China Iron and Steel Association.
This Document shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee on Iron Ore
and Direct Reduced Iron of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 317).
Drafting organizations of this Document: Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.; Shangyu Hongxing
Machinery Instrument Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Anhui Changjiang Steel Co., Ltd.; Zhejiang
Fute Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Benxi Longxin Mining Co., Ltd.; Qingdao Yosion
Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.; CISDI Engineering Co., Ltd.; Tianjin Haixi Instrument Co.,
Ltd.; Dongxuan (Shanghai) Measurement and Control Technology Co., Ltd.; Jiangxi
Guangming Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.; Zhongxin Iron and Steel Group Co., Ltd.; and
China Metallurgical Information and Standardization Institute.
Chief drafting staffs of this Document: Wang Chunsheng, Chen Hailan, Jin Jianhua, Ji Huadong,
Lu Huizhong, Zhang Guanlai, Chen Jin, Chen Rong, Qin Debo, Shen Ju, Fan Kejian, Yan
Guangliang, Hai Xiao, Yu Shuangmin, Zhang Jun, Ma Feiyue, Dong Junqiang, Zheng Yinan,
Sun Xun, He Wenli, Chen Zibin, Zhu Rong, Wang Wensheng, Ma Yunrong, Zhuo Wenkeng,
and Zhang Zhongting.
This Document was first time published in 2000; first time revised in 2014; and it is the third
time revised hereby.
Iron Ores – Sampling and Sample Preparation Procedures
WARNING: This Document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment,
and does not purport to address all the safety issues associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this Document to establish appropriate health and safety
1 Scope
This Document provides the methods for mechanical sampling, manual sampling and
preparation of samples taken from a lot under transfer. This is in order to determine the chemical
composition, moisture content, size distribution and other physical and metallurgical properties
of the lot, except bulk density obtained using ISO 3852 (Method 2). It includes:
a) the underlying theory,
b) the basic principles for sampling and preparation of samples, and
c) the basic requirements for the design, installation and operation of sampling systems
The methods specified in this Document are applicable to both the loading and discharging of
a lot by means of belt conveyors and other ore-handling equipment to which a mechanical
sampler can be installed or where manual sampling can safely be conducted.
The methods are applicable to all iron ores, whether natural or processed (e.g., concentrates and
agglomerates, such as pellets or sinters).
2 Normative References
The provisions in following documents become the essential provisions of this Document
through reference in this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates
indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version
(including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
ISO 565 Test sieve – Metal wire cloth, perforated metal plate and electroformed sheet –
Nominal sizes of openings
ISO 3084 Iron ores – Experimental methods evaluation of quality variation
NOTE: GB/T 1032.2-2000 Iron ores – Experimental methods evaluation of quality variation
(ISO 3084:1998, IDT)
ISO 3085 Iron ores – Experimental methods for checking the precision of sampling sample
preparation and measurement
5 Fundamentals of Sampling and Sample Preparation
5.1 Minimization of bias
5.1.1 General
Minimization of bias in sampling and sample preparation is vitally important. Unlike precision,
which can be improved by collecting more increments or repeating measurements, bias cannot
be reduced by replicating measurements. Consequently, the minimization or preferably
elimination of possible biases should be regarded as more important than improvement of
precision. Sources of bias that can be completely eliminated at the outset by correct design of
the sampling and sample preparation system include sample spillage, sample contamination
and incorrect delineation and extraction of increments, while sources that can be minimized but
not completely eliminated include change in moisture content, loss of dust and particle
degradation (for size determination).
5.1.2 Minimization of particle size degradation
Minimization of particle size degradation of samples used for determination of size distribution
is vital in order to reduce bias in the measured size distribution. To prevent particle size
degradation, it is essential to keep free-fall drops to a minimum.
5.1.3 Extraction of increments
It is essential that increments be extracted from the lot in such a manner that all parts of the ore
have an equal opportunity of being selected and becoming part of the final sample for analysis,
irrespective of the size, mass, shape or density of individual particles. If this requirement is not
respected, bias is easily introduced. This results in the following design requirements for
sampling and sample preparation systems:
a) a complete cross-section of the ore stream shall be taken when sampling from a moving
stream (see 7.5);
b) the aperture of the sample cutter shall be at least three times the nominal top size of the
ore, or 30 mm for the primary sampling and 10 mm for subsequent stages, whichever is
the greater (see 7.5.4);
c) the speed of the sample cutter shall not exceed 0.6 m/s, unless the cutter aperture is
correspondingly increased (see 7.5.5);
d) the sample cutter shall travel through the ore stream at uniform speed (see 7.5.3), both
the leading and trailing edges of the cutter clearing the ore stream at the end of its traverse;
e) the lips on the sample cutter shall be parallel for straight-path samplers and radial for
rotary cutters (see 7.5.3), and these conditions shall be maintained as the cutter lips wear;
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.