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GB 50010-2015 (GB50010-2015)

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GB 50010−2010 (2015 Edition)
Code for Design of Concrete Structures
Issued on: September 22, 2015
Implemented on: September 22, 2015
Jointly Issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction of the People’s Republic of China and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China
1 General
1.0.1 This code was formulated with a view to implementing the national technical and economic policies in the design of concrete structures, achieving safety, applicability and economy and guaranteeing quality.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the design of buildings and other general structures made by reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and plain concrete. But it is not applicable to the design of structures using light self-weight aggregate concrete and special concrete.
1.0.3 This code was formulated based on the principle of the current national standards “Unified Standard for Reliability Design of Engineering Structures” (GB 50153) and “Unified Standard Reliability Design of Building Structures” (GB 50068). This code gives the basic requirements for the design of concrete structures.
1.0.4 In addition to this code, the design of concrete structures shall also comply with those stipulations specified in the relevant current national standards.
2 Terms and Symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Concrete structure
The structure that is made mainly by concrete, including plain concrete structure, reinforced concrete structure and prestressed concrete structure, etc..
2.1.2 Plain concrete structure
The concrete structure that has no reinforcement or no load-carrying reinforcement.
2.1.3 Steel rebar
A generic term for non-prestressing reinforcement used in concrete structural members.
2.1.4 Prestressing tendon
A generic term for prestressing steel wires, strands and deformed steel rebars used in concrete structural members.
2.1.5 Reinforced concrete structure
The concrete structure that is provided with load-carrying reinforcement.
2.1.6 Prestressed concrete structure
The concrete structure that is provided with load-carrying prestressing tendons. The prestress is introduced through stretching or other methods.
2.1.7 Cast-in-situ concrete structure
The concrete structure that is built by erecting form and integrally casting at its permanent location.
2.1.8 Precast concrete structure
The concrete structure that is formed by assembling and connecting precast concrete members or parts.
2.1.9 Assembled monolithic concrete structure
The concrete structure that is assembled by connecting precast concrete members or parts with steel reinforcement, connectors or prestressing force and is finished by casting concrete at connecting spots to form an integeral structure that responds to loads as one unit.
2.1.10 Composite member
The structural member that is produced by combining precast concrete members (or existing concrete structural members) and cast-in-situ concrete but so interconnected that the combined components act together as a single member and respond to loads as one unit.
2.1.11 Deep flexural member
The flexural member having span to height ratio less than 5.
2.1.12 Deep beam
The simply-supported single-span beam having span to height ratio less than 2, or multi-span continuous beam having span to height ratio less than 2.5.
2.1.13 Pretensioned prestressed concrete structure
The concrete structure that is built by tensioning prestressing tendons on pedestal first and then pouring concrete. The tendons and/or bars are then released from the pedestal and the prestress is introduced into concrete through bonding action.
2.1.14 Post-tensioned prestressed concrete structure
The concrete structure in which the prestressing tendons are not tensioned until the concrete has reached the required strength. The stretched prestressing tendons are anchored on the concrete to establish prestress.
2.1.15 Unbonded prestressed concrete structure
One type of the post-tensioned prestressed concrete structures, using unbonded prestressing tendons that can slide relative to concrete.
2.1.16 Bonded prestressed concrete structure
The concrete structure in which the prestress is established by grouting or by directly contacting with concrete to form the mutual bonding between prestressing tendons and concrete.
2.1.17 Structural joint
A generic term for gaps dividing a concrete structure according to the requirements of structural design.
2.1.18 Concrete cover
Concrete ranging from the outer edge of reinforcement to the surface of concrete member with a function to protect the reinforcement.
2.1.19 Anchorage length
A length that is required for reinforcement to provide design stresses through bonding action between the surface of the reinforcement and concrete, or via bearing action between the folded end of the reinforcement and concrete.
2.1.20 Splice of reinforcement
A structural form realizing the transfer of internal forces between reinforcement by such methods as binding and lapping, mechanical connecting and welding.
2.1.21 Ratio of reinforcement
The ratio of the reinforcement areas (or volumes) to the specified cross-sectional area (or volume) of a concrete member.
2.1.22 Shear span ratio
The ratio of the section bending moment to the shear force multiplied by effective depth.
2.1.23 Transverse reinforcement
Stirrup or indirect reinforcement perpendicular to longitudinal reinforcement.
3 General Requirements
3.1 General
3.1.1 The design of concrete structures shall include the following contents:
1 Design of structural scheme, including the structure selection, member layout and force transfer route;
2 Action and effects of action analysis;
3 Limit states design of the structure;
4 Detailing and connection measures of structures and members;
5 Durability and construction requirements;
6 Special performance design of such structure meeting special requirements.
3.1.2 This code adopts the probability-based limit states design method, the degree of reliability of structural members is measured by the reliability index, and the design is carried out by adopting the design expressions of partial factors.
3.1.3 The limit states design of concrete structures shall include:
1 Ultimate limit states: A structure or a structural member reaches the maximum load-carrying capacity and appears the fatigue failure or undue deformation unsuitable for loading continually or has progressive collapse due to the local failure of structure;
2 Serviceability limit states: A structure or a structural member reaches a certain specified limit value of serviceability or a certain specified state of durability.
3.1.4 The direct action (load) on a structure shall be determined in accordance with the current national standard “Load Code for the Design of Building Structures” (GB 50009) and the relevant standards; the seismic action shall be determined in accordance with the current national standard “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings” (GB 50011).
The indirect action and accidental action shall be determined in accordance with the relevant standards or the specific conditions.
Structural members directly bearing crane loads shall take the dynamic factor of crane loads into account. For fabrication, transportation and installation of precast members, the corresponding dynamic factors shall be taken into account. For cast-in-situ structures, the loads during the construction stage shall be taken into account if necessary.
3.1.5 The safety class and design working life of concrete structures shall meet the current national standard “Unified Standard for Reliability Design of Engineering Structures” (GB 50153).
The safety class of different structural members in a concrete structure should be the same as the safety class of the whole structure. The safety class of parts of the structural member may be adjusted properly according to their importance. For important members and critical force transfer positions in the structure, the safety class should be elevated appropriately.
3.1.6 The design of concrete structures shall take the technical level of construction and the
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feasibility of practical engineering condition into account. For concrete structures with special functions, the corresponding construction requirements shall be proposed.
3.1.7 The design shall explicate the purposes of the structures. The purposes and the aplication circumstances of the structures shall not be modified within the design working life without technical evaluation or design permission.
3.2 Structural Scheme
3.2.1 The design scheme of concrete structures shall meet the following requirements:
1 Reasonable structural system, member form and layout shall be selected;
2 The plan and elevation of the structure should be arranged regularly, the mass and rigidity of all parts should be uniform and continuous;
3 The force transfer path of the structure shall be simple and definite, and vertical members should be continuous and aligned;
4 The statically indeterminte structure should be adopted; important members and crucial force transfer positions shall have additional redundant constraints or have several load transfer paths;
5 Measures should be taken to reduce the effects of accidental actions.
3.2.2 The design of structural joints in concrete structures shall meet the following requirements:
1 The position and structural form of structural joints shall be determined reasonably in accordance with the load-carrying characteristics, architectural scale and shape, and service requirements of the structure;
2 The number of structural joints should be controlled, and effective measures shall be taken to reduce the adverse impacts of joints on the service function;
3 The temporary structural joints during construction stage may be arranged as required.
3.2.3 The connection of structural members shall meet the following requirements:
1 The load-carrying capacity of the connecting part shall ensure the force transfer between the connected members;
2 When the concrete members are connected with those made of other materials, reliable measures shall be taken;
3 The impact caused by the deformation of concrete member on connecting joints and adjacent structures or members shall be considered.
3.2.4 The design of concrete structures shall meet the requirements on material saving, ease of construction, reducing energy consumption and protecting environment.
3.3 Ultimate Limit States
3.3.1 The ultimate limit states design of concrete structures shall include the following contents:
1 The calculation of load-carrying capacity (including instability) shall be carried out for
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structural members;
2 Fatigue analysis shall be carried out for members undergoing repeated loads;
3 When seismic design is required, the calculation of seismic capacity shall be carried out;
4 The analysis of structural overturning, sliding or floating shall be carried out if necessary;
5 Regarding the important structures that may suffer from accidental actions and may cause serious consequences if collapsing, the design against progressive collapse should be carried out.
3.3.2 For persistent design situation, transient design situation and seismic design situation, if expressed in the form of internal force, the following design expressions shall be adopted for ultimate limit states design of the structural members:
γ0S≤R (3.3.2-1)
R=R(fc, fs, ak, …)/γRd (3.3.2-2)
Where γ0——The significance coefficient of structure: under the persistent design situation and transient design situation, this coefficient shall not be less than 1.1 for the structural members having the safety grade of Class I ; it shall not be less than 1.0 for the structural members having the safety grade of Class II; and it shall not be less than 0.9 for the structural members having the safety grade of Class III; under the seismic design situation, this coefficient shall be 1.0;
S——The design value of the effect for combination of actions at ultimate limit states: it shall be calculated according to the basic combination of actions under the persistent design situation and transient design situation; and it shall be calculated according to the seismic combination of actions under seismic design situation;
R——The design value of resistance of structural member;
R(·)——The function of resistance of structural member;
γRd——The uncertainty coefficient of the resistance model of structural member: it is taken as 1.0 for static design, and taken as values larger than 1.0 according to specific conditions for the structural members with large uncertainty; in the seismic design, γRd shall be replaced by the seismic adjustment coefficient of load-carrying capacity γRE;
fc, fs——The design values of the strength for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively, which shall be taken as the values in accordance with Article 4.1.4 and Article 4.2.3 of this code;
ak——The characteristic value of geometric parameter. If the variation of the geometric parameter has significant adverse impact on the structural behavior, ak may be increased or decreased by an additional value.
Note: γ0S in Expression (3.3.2-1) is the design value of internal force and is expressed by N, M, V, T in chapters of this code.
3.3.3 For the two-dimensional and three-dimensional concrete structural members, if the analysis is carried out according to the elastic or elastic-plastic method and the expression is in the form of stress,
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the concrete stress may be equivalently substituted into the design value of internal force in the zone and be calculated according to Article 3.3.2 of this code; or the design may be carried out by directly adopting the multi-axial strength criterion.
3.3.4 Where the ultimate limit states design of the structure under accidental actions is carried out, the design value S in Expression (3.3.2-1) shall be calculated according to the accidental combination and the significance coefficient of structure (γ0) shall be taken as a value no less than 1.0; the design values of strength of concrete and steel reinforcement (fc and fs) in Expression (3.3.2-2) shall be replaced by the characteristic values of strength (fck and fyk) (or fpyk).
Where progressive collapse analysis of structure is carried out, the function of load-carrying capacity of structural member shall be determined according to the principles stated in Section 3.6 of this code.
3.3.5 The ultimate limit states design of existing structures shall be carried out according to the following requirements:
1 Where ultimate limit states analysis is required for conducting safety reassessment, changing service purpose or extending the service life of existing structures, it should meet the requirements specified in Article 3.3.2 of this code;
2 Where existing structures are redesigned for the purpose of renovation, extension or consolidation, the calculation of ultimate limit states shall meet the requirements specified in Section 3.7 of this code.
3.4 Serviceability Limit States
3.4.1 On the basis of the functions and appearance requirements of the concrete structural members, the serviceability limit states shall be checked according to the following provisions:
1 For members requiring deformation control, the deformation shall be checked;
2 For members that are not allowed to crack, the tensile stress of concrete shall be checked;
3 For members that are allowed to crack, the width of cracks shall be checked;
4 For floor system having comfort requirements, the vertical natural vibration frequency shall be checked.
3.4.2 For serviceability limit states, reinforced concrete members and prestressed concrete members shall be checked respectively according to the quasi-permanent combination or characteristic combination of loads, and taking into account the influence of long-term actions, by adopting the following design expression:
S≤C (3.4.2)
Where S——The design value of the effect of load combination for serviceability limit states;
C——The limit value of the specified deformation, stress, crack width or natural vibration frequency when the structural member meets the serviceability requirements.
3.4.3 The maximum deflection of reinforced concrete flexural member shall be calculated according to the quasi-permanent combination of loads; the maximum deflection of prestressed concrete flexural
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