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GB 4785-2019 (GB4785-2019)

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GB 4785-2019
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.20
T 38
Replacing GB 4785-2007
Prescription for installation of the external lighting
and light-signalling devices for motor vehicles and
their trailers
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 17, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions ... 7 
4 General requirements ... 20 
5 Special regulations ... 34 
5.1 Main-beam headlamp ... 34 
5.2 Passing-beam headlamp ... 38 
5.3 Front fog lamp ... 45 
5.4 Reversing lamp ... 47 
5.5 Direction-indicator lamp ... 49 
5.6 Hazard warning signal ... 55 
5.7 Stop lamp ... 56 
5.8 Rear-registration plate illuminating device ... 60 
5.9 Front position lamp ... 60 
5.10 Rear position lamp ... 63 
5.11 Rear fog lamp ... 65 
5.12 Parking lamp ... 66 
5.13 End-outline marker lamp ... 68 
5.14 Non-triangular rear retro-reflector ... 70 
5.15 Triangular rear retro-reflector ... 71 
5.16 Non-triangular front retro-reflector ... 72 
5.17 Non-triangular side retro-reflector ... 74 
5.18 Side marker lamp ... 75 
5.19 Daytime running lamp ... 77 
5.20 Cornering lamp ... 79 
5.21 Conspicuity marking ... 80 
5.22 Adaptive front lighting system (AFS) ... 81 
5.23 Emergency stop signal ... 89 
5.24 Marker lamp for draw-bar-trailer ... 91 
5.25 Manoeuvring lamp ... 92 
5.26 Rear-end collision alert signal ... 94 
6 Inspection rules ... 95 
6.1 Same type judgement and inspection ... 95 
6.2 Type inspection ... 95 
6.3 Production consistency inspection ... 96 
6.4 Changes and expansion of lighting and light-signalling devices for vehicles ... 96 
Prescription for installation of the external lighting
and light-signalling devices for motor vehicles and
their trailers
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the general requirements, special regulations, and
inspection rules, etc. for the installation of the external lighting and light-
signalling devices for motor vehicles and their trailers.
This Standard applies to type M, N, and O motor vehicles and trailers, etc.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 3977 Specification of colors
GB 4094 Motor vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales
GB 4599 Motor vehicle headlamps equipped with filament lamps
GB 4660 Motor vehicle front fog lamps equipped with filament lamps
GB 5920 Photometric characteristics of front and rear position lamps, end-
outline marker lamps and stop lamps for motor vehicles and their trailers
GB 11554 Photometric characteristics of rear fog lamp for power-driven
vehicles and their trailers
GB 11564 Retro-reflector device for motor vehicles
GB 12676 Technical requirements and testing methods for commercial
vehicle and trailer braking systems
GB 15235 Photometric characteristics of reversing lamps for power-driven
vehicles
GB 15766.1 Lamps for road vehicles - Dimensional electrical and luminous
requirements
GB 17509 Photometric characteristics of direction indicators for motor
vehicles and their trailers
GB 18099 Photometric characteristics of side-marker lamps for motor
vehicles and their trailers
GB 18408 Photometric characteristics of devices for the illumination of rear
registration plates of motor vehicles and their trailers
GB 18409 Photometric characteristics of parking lamps for power-driven
vehicles
GB 21259 Headlamps equipped with gas - discharge light sources for motor
vehicle
GB/T 21260 Headlamp cleaner
GB 21670 Technical requirements and testing methods for passenger car
braking systems
GB 23254 Retro-reflective markings for trucks and trailers
GB 23255 Photometric characteristics of daytime running lamps for power
driven vehicles
GB 25990 Rear-marking plates for vehicles and their trailers
GB 25991 Automotive headlamps with LED light sources and/or LED
modules
GB/T 30036-2013 Adaptive Front-lighting System for Motor Vehicles
GB/T 30511 Photometric characteristics of cornering lamps for motor vehicle
ECE R37 Uniform provisions concerning the approval of filament lamps for
use in approved lamp units of power-driven vehicles and of their trailers
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
3.1 Type test
Carry out a type test on the number and method of installation of external
change of motion state of the vehicle.
3.7 Light source
One or several illuminants, which can be composed of one or more lampshades
and a lamp holder for mechanical and circuit connection.
3.7.1 Replaceable light source
The light source which can be inserted into and removed from the lamp holder
without tools.
3.7.2 Non-replaceable light source
The light source that is fixed in a light source module or lighting unit and can
only be replaced along with the light source module or lighting unit as a whole.
3.7.3 Light source module
The dedicated optical component of a device that contains one or more non-
replaceable light sources. It may have a lamp holder that meets the
requirements for replaceable light sources.
3.7.4 Filament light source
The light source that emits heat and light through the filament itself.
3.7.5 Gas-discharge light source
The light source that emits light through arc discharge.
3.7.6 Light-emitting diode; LED
A solid light source made of semiconductor materials.
3.7.7 LED module
The light source module that contains only LED light source. It may have a lamp
holder that meets the requirements for replaceable light sources.
3.7.8 Objective luminous flux
The luminous flux value specified in the light source standard data page, which
does not include tolerances.
Note 1: Light source standards include GB 15766.1, ECE R37, ECE R99, ECE R128, etc.
Note 2: For LED modules that do not meet the requirements of ECE R128, the objective
indicator lamps, the apparent surface in this definition is replaced by a light emitting
surface.
3.9.3 Combined lamps
The device that has a separate apparent surface, a common light source, and
a common lamp body in the direction of reference axis.
Note: For rear-registration plate illuminating devices and category 5 and 6 direction-
indicator lamps, the apparent surface in this definition is replaced by a light emitting
surface.
3.9.4 Reciprocally incorporated lamps
The device that has a separate light source or single light source (such as
optical, mechanical, and electrical differences) that works in different situations
in the direction of reference axis, and all or part of which has a common
apparent surface and a common lamp body.
Note: For rear-registration plate illuminating devices and category 5 and 6 direction-
indicator lamps, the apparent surface in this definition is replaced by a light emitting
surface.
3.9.5 Single-function lamp
Relevant parts of the device that produce a single lighting or light-signalling
function.
3.9.6 Concealable lamp
The lamp that can be partially or completely hidden by moving the cover, or
lamp, or using other appropriate methods when not in use.
3.9.7 Driving-beam headlamp; main-beam headlamp
The lamp for long-distance road lighting in front of the vehicle.
3.9.8 Passing-beam headlamp; dipped-beam headlamp
The lamp used to illuminate the road in front of the vehicle, which does not
cause glare or discomfort to oncoming drivers and other road users.
3.9.8.1 Principal passing-beam; principal dipped-beam
Passing beam, excluding beams provided by infrared (IR) emitters and/or
additional light sources for corner lighting.
3.9.9 Direction-indicator lamp
bar-trailer, which is used to assist other signal lamps and indicate the presence
of vehicle.
3.9.29 Manoeuvring lamp
The lamp that provides auxiliary lighting for the side of the vehicle when the
vehicle is moving slowly.
3.9.30 Rear-end collision alert signal; RECAS
An automatic signal sent from the front vehicle to the rear vehicle. It is used to
warn the rear vehicle to take urgent action to avoid collision.
3.9.31 Lamps marked “D”
The independent lamps that allow separate use, or for which two lamps are
treated as an assembly as a "single lamp" for type test respectively.
3.10 Light emitting surface
All or part of the outer surface of the transparent material. This surface is
marked by the device manufacturer in the drawings attached to the test. It
should be marked according to the following conditions:
a) In the case that the outer lens is textured, the light emitting surface is all
or part of the surface of the outer lens;
b) In the case that the outer lens has no texture, the outer lens can be ignored.
The light emitting surface shall be marked in the drawing.
Note 1: For examples of light emitting surface, see B.3.1 and B.3.4 in Appendix B.
Note 2: For an example of condition b), see B.3.5.
3.10.1 Textured outer lens; textured outer lens area
All or part of the outer lens, which is designed to affect the propagation of the
light source beam, for example, to cause a significant deviation of light from its
original direction.
3.11 Illuminating surface
Note: See Appendix B for examples of illuminating surface.
3.11.1 Illuminating surface of a lighting device
The vertical projection of the entire aperture of the reflector on a transverse
plane perpendicular to the reference axis; or for a headlamp with an ellipsoidal
According to the manufacturer's requirements, either the vertical projection OF
the boundary of the illuminating surface projected on the outer surface of the
lens ON a plane in a specific observation direction, or the vertical projection of
the light emitting surface on a plane in a specific observation direction. This
plane is perpendicular to the observation direction and is in contact with the
outermost point of the lens.
Note 1: The light-signalling device of variable luminous intensity caused by the variable
intensity control defined by 3.8.3, in all cases allowed by the variable intensity
control, allows its apparent surface to be variable.
Note 2: See Appendix B for examples of apparent surface.
3.13 Axis of reference; reference axis
The characteristic line of lamp specified by the manufacturer, which is used as
the reference direction of the angular field-of-view (H=0°, V=0°) during
photometric measurement and lamp installation.
3.14 Centre of reference
The intersection of the reference axis and the outer surface of the light emitting
surface, which is specified by the lamp manufacturer.
3.15 Angles of geometric visibility
The smallest solid angle visible on the apparent surface of lamp. The solid angle
is determined by a part of the ball. The centre of the ball is located at the centre
of reference of the lamp. The mid-latitude line is parallel to the ground. Based
on the reference axis, the horizontal angle β represents longitude; the vertical
angle α represents latitude.
3.16 Extreme outer edge
The plane parallel to the longitudinal symmetry plane of the vehicle and in
contact with the outer edge of the vehicle. Except for the following protrusions:
- The contact (deformed) part of the tire with the ground and the connector
of the tire pressure sensor;
- Various anti-skid devices on the tire;
- Rearview mirror (indirect field of vision device);
- Side direction-indicator lamps, end-outline marker lamps, front and rear
position lamps, parking lamps, retro-reflectors, and side marker lamps;
and the side marker lamp, the reference axis shall be perpendicular to the
longitudinal symmetry plane of the vehicle; the reference axis of all other light-
signalling devices shall be parallel to it. The tolerance in each direction is ±3°.
If the manufacturer has special installation instructions, they shall also be
followed.
4.4 If there is no special instruction, when inspecting the installation height and
direction of the lamps, the vehicle under test shall be unladen and placed on a
level ground. The vehicle shall be in the state defined in 3.26. AFS shall be in a
neutral state.
4.5 The installation requirements for paired lamps shall meet the following:
a) Relative to the longitudinal symmetry plane of the vehicle, mounted
symmetrically on the vehicle (determined by the lamp shape, not the edge
of the illuminating surface defined in 3.11).
b) Relative to the longitudinal symmetry plane, they are symmetrical to each
other, excluding the internal structure of the lamps.
c) MEET the same chromaticity requirements and photometric requirements.
This subclause does not apply to matched-pair F3-class front fog lamps.
4.6 For vehicles with asymmetrical shapes, the requirements of 4.5 shall also
be met as far as possible.
4.7 A single lamp, grouped lamps, combined lamps, and reciprocally
incorporated lamps shall meet the following requirements:
a) The lamps, in accordance with their respective light colors, installation
positions, orientations, geometric visibility, circuit connections, and other
requirements, can be grouped, combined, or incorporated with each other.
It shall meet the following requirements:
1) When other grouped, combined, or reciprocally incorporated lamps are
turned off, the lamps shall meet their photometric and chromaticity
requirements. For the case where the front position lamp or the rear
position lamp is mixed with one or more functions and working at the
same time, it shall be ensured that, when the function and the front
position lamp/rear position lamp are turned on at the same time, the
chromaticity requirements of the function are met.
2) Stop lamps are not allowed to be incorporated with direction-indicator
lamps.
3) In the case of a combination of stop lamps and direction-indicator lamps,
arranged side by side. At this time, the projections of the light emitting
surfaces of these illuminating units juxtaposed on the transverse plane
shall meet the requirements of 4.7 b)1).
4.8 The maximum ground clearance shall be measured from the highest point
of the apparent surface in the direction of reference axis. The minimum ground
clearance shall be measured from the lowest point of the apparent surface in
the direction of reference axis. (If the installation position clearly meets the
requirements of this Standard, it is not necessary to determine the precise edge
of any surface.) Except for the following cases:
a) For situations where the ground clearance may reduce the requirement of
geometric visibility, the ground clearance shall be measured with the H
plane of the lamp as the reference.
b) For passing-beam headlamps and front fog lamps, the minimum ground
clearance shall be measured from the lowest point of the effective
aperture of the optical system (for example: reflector, lens, projection lens).
c) Lateral installation position, for overall width: determined by the edge of
the apparent surface in the direction of the reference axis furthest from the
longitudinal symmetry plane of the vehicle. The distance between two
lamps is determined by the inner edges of the apparent surface in the
direction of reference axis.
4.9 Without special instructions, during the operation of lamp, its optical
characteristics (such as: light intensity, color, apparent surface, etc.) must not
be changed at will. Except in the following cases:
a) Direction-indicator lamps, hazard warning signals, side marker lamps in
accordance with 5.18.7, and emergency stop signals are allowed to flash.
b) Situations in which the optical characteristics allow change:
- Change with external ambient light;
- Changes as other lamps are turned on;
- When the lamp switches to another function.
All the above-mentioned changes in optical characteristics shall comply
with the relevant technical regulations of lamps.
c) The optical characteristics of class 1, 1a, 1b, 2a, or 2b direction-indicator
lamps, in accordance with the provisions of GB 17509, allow sequential
activation flashing mode. Class 2a and 2b direction-indicator lamps, when
4.17 The illuminating surface of a light-signalling device other than a retro-
reflector is determined as follows:
a) When determining the upper, lower, and lateral edges of the illuminating
surface, the edge of the shielding frame shall be horizontal or vertical. The
distance to the outer edge of the vehicle and the height from the ground
shall be calculated from this.
For other applications of the illuminating surface, such as the distance
between two lamps or functions, it shall consider the contour boundary of
the illuminating surface. The shielding frames remain parallel and allow
for any direction to be used.
If the illuminating surface of a light-signalling device completely or partially
surrounds the illuminating surface (or non-illuminating surface) of another
function, the illuminating surface may be regarded as the light emitting
surface itself (see B.3.2, B.3.3, B.3.5, and B.3.6 in Appendix B).
b) For all applications of the illuminating surface, when determining the upper,
lower, and lateral edges, the edges of the shielding frame shall be
horizontal or vertical.
4.18 For rear position lamps, rear direction-indicator lamps, triangular/non-
triangular rear retro-reflectors mounted on movable components, the following
requirements shall be met:
a) The lamps, in all fixed positions of the moving components, meet the
requirements of their respective installation positions, geometric visibility,
chromaticity, and photometric characteristics. Or when the moving
component moves to the fixed open position, there are additional lamps
that will automatically turn on, replacing the lamps on the moving
component to meet the requirements of installation position, geometric
visibility, and photometric characteristics.
b) For a lamp consisting of two lamps marked “D”, only one of them is
required to meet the installation position, geometric visibility, and
photometric characteristics requirements of the lamp at all fixed positions
of the moving component [i.e., 4.18 a)]. Or when the moving component
moves to the fixed open position, there are additional lamps that will
automatically turn on, replacing the lamps on the moving component to
meet the requirements of installation position, geometric visibility, and
photometric characteristics.
c) For the use of interdependent lamp system, one of the following conditions
shall be met:
the excess subtracted, to reduce the allowable range of the slope.
4.21 When viewed from the direction of reference axis, any movable component
(whether or not equipped with a light-signalling device), in all fixed positions,
covers the front and rear position lamps, front and rear direction-indicator lamps,
and front and rear retro-reflectors at no more than 50% of their apparent
surfaces. If the above conditions cannot be met, the following requirements
shall be met:
a) There are additional lamps that will automatically turn on. It shall ensure
that, when above 50% of the apparent surface of the above lamps in the
direction of the reference axis is blocked by the moving component, the
lamps can still meet all requirements for installation position, geometric
visibility, chromaticity, and photometric characteristics. Or,
b) It shall be explained in the test material of the lamp: In the direction of the
reference axis, the moving component will cover more than 50% of the
apparent surface; and, in the above case, there shall be precautions on
the vehicle clearly indicating the user that in some positions of the
movable component, other road users shall be warned of the presence of
the vehicle, such as using warning triangles or other devices prescribed
by the state. This requirement does not apply to retro-reflectors.
4.22 With the exception of retro-reflectors, all lamps (including those that have
passed type test), after being fitted with a light source or/and a fuse, are not
considered if they cannot be lit.
4.23 For lamps which use replaceable filament light sources in accordance with
GB 15766.1 and ECE R37 (except for non-replaceable light sources as defined
in 3.7.2), their installation on vehicles shall ensure that the light source can be
replaced without dedicated tools or special tools, unless these tools are already
equipped on the vehicle and the manufacturer shall provide detailed
instructions on how to replace them.
For the light source module, if it has a lamp holder that is the same as the
replaceable light source lamp holder in GB 15766.1 and ECE R37, it shall also
comply with this regulation.
4.24 When the rear position lamp has a temporary failure, it is allowed to use a
lamp with similar light color, central luminous intensity, and position instead; and,
the replacement lamp maintains the original function. During this period, the
operating tell-tale (see 3.20) on the panel shall indicate that a temporary
replacement has occurred and overhaul is required.
4.25 If AFS is installed, it is equivalent to a pair of passing-beam headlamps
and a pair of main-beam headlamps (if equipped).
direction to get the same accuracy.
c) If the apparent surface of the lamp is partially covered by vehicle
components when mounting the lamp, proof shall be provided to show
that the unshaded part of the lamp still meets the photometric value
required for type test.
d) For lamps with an installation height of less than 750 mm from the ground
[For measurement method, refer to 4.8 a)], the downward geometric
visibility can be reduced to 5°. Its corresponding photometric
measurement range can also be reduced to 5°.
e) For an interdependent lamp system, the geometric visibility shall be
measured when all the interdependent lamps are turned on.
4.29 The area of the light emitting surface of all rear position lamps, rear
direction-indicator lamps, and stop lamps of trucks, special operation vehicles,
and trailers with a total mass of not less than 4500 kg shall be not less than the
area of a circle of 80 mm diameter. If the light emitting surface is not circular, its
shape shall be able to accommodate a circle of 40 mm diameter.
4.30 The LED module is non-replaceable.
4.31 When the vehicle is stationary and one or more of the following conditions
are met, external lighting and light-signalling devices not defined in this
Standard may be turned on; but the effectiveness of external lighting and light-
signalling devices defined in this Standard must not be jeopardized:
- Engine (propulsion system) stops working;
- The driver's or passenger's door has been opened;
- The trunk door has been opened.
5 Special regulations
5.1 Main-beam headlamp (lamp which meets the requirements of GB 4599
other than class A, GB 21259, GB 25991)
5.1.1 Equipping
The motor vehicle shall be equipped with this lamp; the trailer shall not use it.
5.1.2 Number
Two or four. For N3 vehicles, two more main-beam headlamps can be installed.
- Ambient light conditions;
- Light from front lighting devices and front light-signalling devices on
oncoming vehicles;
- Light emitted by the rear light-signalling device of the vehicle ahead.
Allow installation of additional performance-enhancing sensor functions.
"Vehicles" in this subclause refer to vehicles of type L, M, N, O. It is considered
that these vehicles are equipped with retro-reflectors and the lighting and light-
signalling systems are turned on.
5.1.7.3 The main-beam headlamp shall be able to be manually turned on or off
at any time. The main-beam headlamp automatic control function shall be able
to be manually turned off. In addition, the manual operation mode of turning off
the main-beam headlamp and the main-beam headlamp automatic control
function shall be simple and straightforward. No secondary operation is allowed.
5.1.7.4 The main-beam headlamps shall be turned on simultaneously or in pairs.
When two more main-beam headlamps are installed in accordance with 5.1.2,
N3 vehicles can only switch on two pairs simultaneously at the most. When
changing from passing-beam to main-beam, it shall turn on at least a pair of
main-beam headlamps. When changing from main-beam to passing-beam, all
main-beam headlamps shall be turned off at the same time.
5.1.7.5 When the main-beam headlamp is on, the passing-beam headlamp is
allowed to be on as well.
5.1.7.6 When four concealable headlamps are installed, their raised position
shall prevent any additional headlamps from working at the same time. The
latter is only used to send intermittent light signals during the day.
5.1.8 Tell-tale
It shall be equipped with a closed-circuit tell-tale. If the headlamps are
automatically controlled as described in 5.1.7.1, the driver shall be provided
with a reminder that the automatic control of the main-beam has been activated.
This message is displayed while the automatic control is on.
5.1.9 Other requirements
5.1.9.1 Maximum luminous intensity limit
The sum of the maximum luminous intensity of all main-beam headlamps that
can be turned on at the same time shall not exceed 430000 cd.
It can be performed automatically and shall not cause discomfort, distraction,
or dizziness.
5.1.9.3.3 Mode of proof of overall performance of automatic control device
5.1.9.3.3.1 The test may be carried out by a simulation method or other
methods proposed by the manufacturer; but shall be approved by the testing
agency.
5.1.9.3.3.2 Running test as described in E.1 of Appendix E. The performance
of automatic control device shall be inspected in accordance with the
manufacturer's description (submission of supporting documents). Objections
shall be raised for any apparent failure (such as flashing).
5.1.9.3.4 Automatic turning-on conditions for automatically-controlled
main-beam headlamps
Within the areas and distances described in 5.1.9.3.1.1 and 5.1.9.3.1.2, no
vehicle mentioned in 5.1.7.2 is detected; and, the measured ambient light is in
accordance with 5.1.9.3.5.
5.1.9.3.5 Cases where the automatically-controlled main-beam headlamps
shall turn off automatically
In the case that the main-beam headlamp is automatically turned on, when an
oncoming or forward running vehicle as defined by 5.1.7.2 is detected in the
areas and distances of 5.1.9.3.1.1 and 5.1.9.3.1.2, the main-beam headlamp
shall turn off automatically.
When the ambient illumination exceeds 7000 lx, the main-beam headlamp shall
be automatically turned off.
Manufacturers shall, using simulation or the method approved by testing
agencies, demonstrate compliance with the above requirements. If necessary,
use a cosine-corrected sensor to measure illumination on the same level as the
vehicle's sensor installation height. Manufacturers can prove by sufficient
supporting documents or other methods approved by the testing agency.
5.2 Passing-beam headlamp (lamp which meets the requirements of GB
4599 other than class A, GB 21259, GB 25991)
5.2.1 Equipping
The motor vehicle shall be equipped with this lamp; the trailer shall not use it.
5.2.2 Number
- MOVE the entire passing beam or the cut-off line bend elbow to create a
bend lighting function; or
- The principal passing-beam is generated by one or more LED modules
(unless the circuit connection guarantees that when any LED module fails,
all modules go out).
The tell-tale shall be turned on if:
- The turning of the cut-off line bend elbow fails; or
- Any one of the LED modules used to form the principal passing-beam fails
(unless the circuit connection guarantees that when any LED module fails,
all modules go out).
When a failure condition occurs, the tell-tale shall always be on, allowing
temporary shutdown. But when the engine unit is started or stopped, it shall be
turned on again.
5.2.9 Other requirements
The requirements of 4.5 b) of this Standard do not apply to passing-beam
headlamps.
When the luminous flux of the single-side passing-beam headlamp light source
or the total luminous flux of the LED module used to generate the principal
passing-beam exceeds 2000 lm, a headlamp cleaner in accordance with GB/T
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.