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GB 31241-2014 (GB31241-2014)

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GB 31241-2014: PDF in English

GB 31241-2014
ICS 29.220.99
K 82
Lithium ion cells and batteries used in portable
electronic equipments - Safety requirements
Issued by.
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
Table of Contents
Introduction ... 4 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions ... 7 
4 Test conditions ... 12 
5 General safety requirements ... 17 
6 Electric safety tests of cells ... 20 
7 Safety test of cell environment ... 21 
8 Environment safety test to batteries ... 25 
9 Electric safety test to batteries ... 28 
10 Safety requirements for protection circuit of batteries ... 30 
11 Safety requirements for system protection circuit... 33 
12 Consistency requirements ... 35 
Annex A ... 36 
Annex B ... 38 
Annex C ... 46 
Annex D ... 49 
Annex E ... 50 
Annex F ... 53 
Annex G ... 54 
Bibliography ... 55 
All technical contents of this Standard are mandatory.
This Standard is drafted in accordance with the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard was proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of
the People's Republic of China.
This Standard shall be under jurisdiction of the China Electronics Standardization
Drafting organizations of this Standard. China Electronics Standardization Institute,
Shenzhen BAK Battery Co., Ltd., Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd., Dongguan Amperex
Technology Co., Ltd., Sunwoda Electronics Co., Ltd., Scud (Fujian) Electronics Co.,
Ltd., Vimicro Co., Ltd., and Beijing Saixi Science and Technology Development Co.,
Main drafters of this Standard. He Penglin, Hu Jingping, Cao Xuan, Su Jinran, Chen
Zhikui, Wu Yuanming, Li Wuqi, Lin Nengqi, and Feng Haiyu.
This introduction is intended to introduce the principles being based by the
requirements of this Standard. Understanding those principles is necessary to design
and produce safe lithium ion cells and lithium ion batteries. What need to be noted is
that this Standard only considers the most basic safety requirements for lithium ion
cells and lithium ion batteries to provide safety protection for the persons and property,
without involving the performance and functional property.
The further development of technology and process will inevitably require the further
modification of this Standard.
The hazards caused by lithium ion cells and lithium ion batteries within the scope of
this Standard refer to.
— Leakage, which may cause chemical corrosion hazard to human bodies
directly, or cause the internal insulation failure of battery-powered electronic
equipment, indirectly resulting in electric shock, fire, and other hazards;
— Fire, which directly burns the human body, or causes fire hazard to
battery-powered electronic equipment.
— Explosion, which directly endangers the human body, or damages the
— Overheating, which directly causes burn on human bodies, reduces the
insulation level and performance of safety-related components, or ignites
flammable liquids.
Leakage hazard may be caused by the enclosure damage for internal stress or
external stress. The reason of fire and explosion may be caused by the thermal
runaway inside the battery, which may be caused by the short circuit in the battery,
strong oxidation of battery materials, etc.
In determining the design program of cells or batteries, the following priority order
shall be complied with.
— Firstly, if possible, preferentially choose materials with high safety, and avoid
using materials prone to thermal runaway as possible;
— Secondly, if the above principles cannot be implemented, there is a need to
design protection device, to reduce or eliminate the possibility of hazards,
such as adding protection devices;
— Finally, if the above-mentioned programs and other measures cannot
completely avoid the occurrence of hazards, there is a need to take
identification and description measures for the residues hazards.
The above principles cannot replace the detailed requirements of this Standard, which
just allow the designers to understand the principles being based by the requirements.
The safety of lithium ion cells and lithium ion batteries is related to the material
selection, design, production process, transportation, and use conditions. In which,
the use conditions include normal use condition, foreseeable misuse condition, and
foreseeable fault condition; and also include environmental conditions that affect the
safety, such as temperature and altitude.
The safety requirements for the lithium ion cells and batteries cover hazards caused
by all the above factors to personnel. The personnel refer to maintenance personnel
and use personnel.
Maintenance personnel refer to the personnel who maintain the electronic equipment
and its batteries. The maintenance personnel can use professional skills to avoid
possible injuries if there are obvious hazards. However, it shall protect the
maintenance personnel from unexpected dangers, for example, use identification or
warning note to alert maintenance personnel of residues hazards.
Use personnel refer to all personnel other than maintenance personnel. Safety
protection requirements are proposed under the condition where assuming that the
use personnel without being trained on how to recognize hazards will not intentionally
create a dangerous situation.
The production procedures, such as material selection, design, and process, are
essentially important to the safety of lithium ion cells and batteries. The quality control
example of production procedure is shown in Annex A; the design and manufacturing
process can be referred to Annex B.
Lithium ion cells and batteries used in portable electronic
equipments - Safety requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements for lithium ion cells and batteries used
in portable electronic equipment.
This Standard applies to lithium ion cells and batteries used in portable electronic
equipment (hereinafter referred to as cells and batteries). The portable electronic
equipment within the scope of this Standard are exampled as follows.
a) Portable office equipment. notebook computers, PDA, etc.
b) Mobile communication equipment. cell phones, cordless phones, Bluetooth
headsets, interphones, etc.
c) Portable audio/video equipment. portable televisions, portable DVD players,
MP3/MP4 players, cameras, video cameras, voice recording pens, etc.
d) Other portable equipment. electronic navigation devices, digital photo frames,
game consoles, e-books, etc.
Portable electronic equipment listed above do not include all of the equipment, so the
equipment that are not listed are not certainly to be beyond the scope of this Standard.
There may be additional requirements for lithium ion cells and batteries used in
portable electronic equipment that are used on vehicles, ships, airplanes, and other
special occasions, as well as for health care, mining, submarine operations, and other
special fields.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for application of this document. For the
dated reference documents, only dated versions apply to this document. For the
undated reference documents, the latest versions (including all amendments) apply to
this document.
GB 4943.1 Information technology equipment - Safety - Part 1. General
GB/T 5169.5-2008 Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 5.
Test flames - Needle test method - Apparatus confirmatory arrangement and
GB/T 5330-2003 Industrial woven metal wire cloth (square opening series)
GB/T 6005-2008 Test sieves - Metal wire cloth perforated metal plate and
electroformed sheet - Nominal sizes of openings
GB 8898 Audio, video and simi...
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.